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    國際生物炭協會IBI :生物炭常見問題解答 FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS ABOUT BIOCHAR

    發布日期:2016-8-28 9:23:09  瀏覽量:
    什么是生物炭?
    What is biochar?
    生物炭是指生物質在缺氧或低氧環境下經過熱化學轉化后的固體產物。在其他技術術語中,生物炭是指由有機材料(如木材、糞肥或葉子等生物質)在有限的氧氣(O2))供應以及相對較低的溫度(<700℃)條件下熱裂解后的產物。這個過程類似于木炭生產,這也許是人類發展最古老的工業技術。生物炭與一般木炭不同—-主要用作燃料—-其中一個主要應用是作為土壤改良劑,改善土壤條件以及減少溫室氣體排放量。
    Biochar is a solid material obtained from the carbonization thermochemical conversion of biomass in an oxygen-limited environments. In more technical terms, biochar is produced by thermal decomposition of organic material (biomass such as wood, manure or leaves) under limited supply of oxygen (O2), and at relatively low temperatures (<700°C). This process mirrors the production of charcoal, which is perhaps the most ancient industrial technology developed by humankind. Biochar can be distinguished from charcoal—used mainly as a fuel—in that a primary application is use as a soil amendment with the intention to improve soil functions and to reduce emissions from biomass that would otherwise naturally degrade to greenhouse gases.
    生物炭有何作用?
    What can biochar do?

    可持續發展的生物炭是一個有力簡單的工具,可以
    • 應對全球變暖;
    • 產生土壤增強劑,固碳,使土壤更加肥沃
    • 減少農業廢棄物
    • 生產清潔的可再生能源。在某些生物炭系統中,這四個目標都可以達到,而在其他的,至少能達到兩個以上。
    Sustainable biochar is a powerfully simple tool that can 1) fight global warming; 2) produce a soil enhancer that holds carbon and makes soil more fertile; 3) reduce agricultural waste; and 4) produce clean, renewable energy. In some biochar systems all four objectives can be met, while in others a combination of two or more objectives will be obtained.
    生物炭是如何生產的?
    How is biochar produced?
    碳化是指通過還原熱處理將原料轉化成生物炭的過程。其中受到時間、熱量和壓力等因素影響,而這些因素會因不同設備以及原料有差異。有兩個主要過程:熱解或氣化。在生產生物炭的過程中,也會產生氣體或油狀的能源產品。這些能源產品可用于其它用途,或者可以簡單燃燒,釋放熱量。此外,生產生物炭可以利用各種各樣的生物質原料。
    Carbonization is the process of converting a feedstock into biochar through reductive thermal processing. The process involves a combination of time, heat and pressure exposure factors that can vary between processors, equipment, and feedstocks. There are two main processes: pyrolysis or gasification. Energy products in the form of gas or oil are produced along with the biochar. These energy products may be recoverable for another use, or may simply be burned and released as heat. In addition, biochar can be made from a wide variety of biomass feedstocks.
     
    如何判斷生物炭能提高作物產量?
    How do we know that biochar helps increase crop yields?
    目前有大量文獻資料量化描述了生物炭有利于提高農作物產量。過去幾年里,在熱帶地區對生物炭進行了田間試驗。大多數據顯示生物炭應用到土壤中,對土壤養分都產生了積極的影響。
    There is a large body of peer-reviewed literature quantifying and describing the crop yield benefits of biochar-amended soil. Field trials using biochar have been conducted in the tropics over the past several years. Most show positive results on yields when biochar was applied to field soils and nutrients were managed appropriately.
     
    在土壤中使用木炭已有上千年歷史。最知名的例子是巴西肥沃的“黑土”(Terra Preta),日本也有在土壤中使用木炭。巴西和日本的傳統都顯示了生物炭對土壤有積極影響。
    There is also evidence from thousands of years of traditional use of charcoal in soils. The most well-known example is the fertile Terra Preta soils in Brazil, but Japan also has a long tradition of using charcoal in soil, a tradition that is being revived and has been exported over the past 20 years to countries such as Costa Rica. The Brazilian and Japanese traditions together provide long-term evidence of positive biochar impact on soils.
     
    雖然生物炭對土壤和氣候的影響是肯定的,但是一些生物炭的生產也值得探討。目前正在努力多樣化地在土壤中利用生物炭,實現生物炭價值最大化。
    While the larger questions concerning overall biochar benefits to soils and climate have been answered in the affirmative, significant questions remain, including the need for a better understanding of some of the details of biochar production and characterization. Work is ongoing to develop methods for matching different types of biochar to soils for the best results.
    生物炭如何幫助農民?
    How can biochar help farmers?
    使用生物炭可以改善土壤肥力。單獨使用,或以一定比例與肥料等農用化學品組合添加到土壤中。當時,這些營養物質與生物炭組合使用時,可以減少其施用率。生物炭保存在土壤中,可以帶來多年的好處。當將有機殘留物轉化成生物炭時,通過捕獲在生物炭生產過程中釋放出的能量,農民也可以得到能量產量。在工業化國家和發展中國家,土壤流失和退化在以前所未有的速度出現,對土壤生態系統性能產生深遠的影響。在許多地區,土壤生產力的損失出現,盡管集約利用農藥,對土水資源產生不利影響。生物炭在擴大土壤可持續管理上發揮重要作用,可以通過改進現有的最佳管理實踐,不但提高土壤生產力還可以減少養分流失。
    Biochar provides a unique opportunity to improve soil fertility for the long term using locally available materials. Used alone, or in combinations, compost, manure and/or agrochemicals are added at certain rates every year to soils, in order to realize benefits. Application rates of these can be reduced when nutrients are combined with biochar. Biochar remains in the soil, and single applications can provide benefits over many years. Farmers can also receive an energy yield when converting organic residues into biochar by capturing energy given off in the biochar production process. In both industrialized and developing countries, soil loss and degradation is occurring at unprecedented rates, with profound consequences for soil ecosystem properties. In many regions, loss in soil productivity occurs despite intensive use of agrochemicals, concurrent with adverse environmental impacts on soil and water resources. Biochar can play a major role in expanding options for sustainable soil management by improving upon existing best management practices, not only to improve soil productivity but also to decrease nutrient loss through leaching by percolating water. 
    生物炭能否添加到堿性土壤?
    Can you add biochar to alkaline soils?
    大多數生物炭試驗都是在酸性土壤中進行,使用較高的pH值(例如6-10)生物炭。一項分別將生物炭加入酸性和堿性土壤的對比研究發現,在酸性土壤中加入更有益農作物生長,而在堿性土壤中加入效果不明顯。在另一項研究中,土壤中添加生物炭引起pH升高,當pH值大于6時,由于微量元素出現不足,對產量有不利的影響。所以往堿性土壤中加入任何有石灰含量的物質時,必須要謹慎。不過也有可能生產出適用于堿性土壤的生物炭。
    Most biochar trials have been done on acidic soils, where biochars with a high pH (e.g. 6-10) were used. One study that compared the effect of adding biochar to an acidic and an alkaline soil found greater benefits on crop growth in the acidic soil, while benefits on the alkaline soil were minor. In another study, adding biochar to soil caused increases in pH which had a detrimental effect on yields, because of micronutrient deficiencies which occur at high pH (>6). Care must be taken when adding any material with a liming capacity to alkaline soils; however, it is possible to produce biochar that has little or no liming capacity that is suitable for alkaline soils.
    生物炭在土壤中保存多久?
    How long does biochar persist in the soil?

    生物炭的特性取決于不同的原料以及生產方式。 生物炭一個統一特性,它在土壤中礦化的速度比其未碳化材料(原料)慢得多。大多數生物炭確實有一個小部分不穩定(易分解)的碳,但通常更大部分是頑固的(穩定)?茖W家已經證明,這種穩定部分平均停留時間(即生物炭將在土壤中持續的時間估計)從幾十年到幾千年不等。
    Biochar is a spectrum of materials, and its characteristics vary depending upon what it is made from and how it is made. One unifying characteristic of biochars, however, is that it mineralizes in soils much more slowly than its uncharred precursor material (feedstock). Most biochars do have a small labile (easily decomposed) fraction of carbon but there is typically a much larger recalcitrant (stable) fraction. Scientists have shown that the mean residence time (the estimated amount of time that biochar carbon will persist in soils) of this recalcitrant fraction ranges from decades to millennia.
     
    為什么生物炭在土壤中的持久性很重要?
    Why is biochar persistence in soils important?
    生物炭并入土壤中的持久性之所以至關重要原因是生物炭的環境效益:首先,它決定了在生物炭的碳元素封存在土壤中和對氣候變化的減緩的持續時間;其次,它決定了生物炭對土壤和水的質量效益的持續時間。
    The persistence of biochar when incorporated into soils is of fundamental importance in determining the environmental benefits of biochar for two reasons: first, it determines how long carbon in biochar will remain sequestered in soil and contribute to the mitigation of climate change; and second, it determines how long biochar can provide benefits to soil and water quality.
     
    生物炭如何減緩氣候變化?
    How can biochar mitigate climate change?
    當前大量農林業廢棄物和其他生物質都是燒毀或置之不理,這些都會分解從而釋放二氧化碳(CO2)和甲烷(CH4)- 大氣中兩個主要的溫室氣體(GHGs)。當在全球范圍內通過將億噸生物質轉化為生物炭,有研究表明,生物炭有潛力可以降低大氣中的溫室氣體濃度,以減緩全球氣候變化(Woolf等人, 2010)。
    Large amounts of forestry and agricultural residues and other biomass are currently burned or left to decompose thereby releasing carbon dioxide (CO2) and/or methane (CH4)—two main greenhouse gases (GHGs)—into the atmosphere. Under biochar conversion scenarios, easily mineralized carbon compounds in biomass are converted into fused carbon ring structures in biochar and placed in soils where they persist for hundreds or thousands of years. When deployed on a global scale through the conversion of gigatonnes of biomass into biochar, studies have shown that biochar has the potential to mitigate global climate change by drawing down atmospheric GHG concentrations (Woolf et al, 2010).
     
    生物炭產業成功與否依賴于碳市場?
    Does a successful biochar industry depend on carbon markets?

    生物炭可為農民帶來直接的效益,以及許多其他可量化的環境效益,其中包括減緩氣候變化。盡管正在努力建立機制,以量化和貨幣化生物炭對環境的積極效應——主要以碳抵消的形式——這只會增加對農民和其他利益相關者現有的財政獎勵。
    Biochar offers direct, present day benefits to farmers of all sizes in the form of greater crop productivity as well as numerous other quantifiable environmental benefits, among them climate change mitigation. While efforts are underway to develop mechanisms to quantify and monetize the climate benefits of biochar—chiefly in the form of carbon offset methodologies—these would only add to the existing financial incentives for farmers and other stakeholders to adopt biochar.
     
    生物炭的生產是可持續的嗎?
    Is biochar production sustainable?

    生物炭的生產和使用包括一個復雜的系統,它的可持續性涉及各種組件。在支持生物炭行業商業化發展的所有關鍵因素中,原料供應和可持續產量問題是目前最重要的,無論是從可持續發展還是金融和商業角度上看。這將要求用于生物炭生產的生物質來源的適當性,并能夠承受整個生命周期分析。生物炭生產應該利用廢物。當前大量的農業、市政和林業生物質燒毀或分解釋放出二氧化碳和甲烷到大氣中。這些包括農作物殘余物(如堅果殼、果核等),食品、林業廢棄物和動物糞便。用這些材料制作生物炭將意味著與其他土地用途沒有競爭。
    Biochar production and use comprises a complex system and its sustainability must be parsed out into various components. Of all the key factors that will support the fastest commercialization of the biochar industry, feedstock supply and sustainable yield issues are by far the most important, from both a broad sustainability perspective and from the financial and commercial points of view. This will require the sources of biomass selected for biochar production to be appropriate and be able to withstand a comprehensive life cycle analysis. Biochar can and should be made from waste materials. Large amounts of agricultural, municipal and forestry biomass are currently burned or left to decompose and release CO2 and methane back into the atmosphere. These include crop residues (both field residues and processing residues such as nut shells, fruit pits, etc), as well as yard, food and forestry wastes, and animal manures. Making biochar from these materials will entail no competition for land with any other land use option.
     
    生物炭是改善土壤和土壤固碳的工具。但是這項技術必須通過尊重原住民的土地權利和支持健康自然生態系統的方式來實現。
    Biochar can be a tool for improving soils and sequestering carbon in soil. However, this technology as any other must be implemented in a way that respects the land rights of indigenous people and supports the health of natural ecosystems.
     
    生產和使用生物炭的成本和收益是什么?
    What are the costs and benefits of producing and using biochar?
    生產和使用生物炭帶來的好處包括,減少廢物,能源合作生產,提高土壤肥力和結構,減緩氣候變化。并非所有的這些好處都被計入當前的經濟體制下,但未來在碳約束的經濟下,減緩氣候變化效益可能被納入為經濟效益。生物炭的部分效益被生產成本抵消了,主要涉及原料運輸和加工。生物炭系統的盈利能力將受能源價格和減少溫室氣體排放影響。
    The benefits that potentially flow from biochar production and use include waste reduction, energy co-production, improved soil fertility and structure, and climate change mitigation. Not all of these benefits are accounted for under current economic systems, but under the carbon constrained economies of the future, the climate mitigation benefit is likely to be accounted for as an economic benefit. Biochar benefits are partly offset by the costs of production, mainly hauling and processing feedstocks. Profitability of biochar systems will be especially sensitive to prices for energy and for greenhouse gas reductions and offsets.

    來源:國際生物炭協會International Biochar Initiative



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